Atlantic series

High Power Industrial Picosecond Lasers
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  • For micromachining applications
  • Up to 30 W at 355 nm
  • Up to 40 W at 532 nm
  • Up to 80 W at 1064 nm
  • 10 ± 3 ps pulse duration
  • Single shot – 1 MHz pulse repetition rates
  • For micromachining applications
  • Up to 30 W at 355 nm
  • Up to 40 W at 532 nm
  • Up to 80 W at 1064 nm
  • 10 ± 3 ps pulse duration
  • Single shot – 1 MHz pulse repetition rates

Features & Applications

Atlantic Features

  • Up to 80 W at 1064 nm
  • 532 nm, 355 nm outputs available
  • Up to 1 MHz repetition rate
  • Up to 200 µJ pulse energy
  • Short pulse duration 10 ps
  • Excellent beam quality M²<1.3
  • Individual pulse control
  • Smart triggering for synchronous operation with polygon scanner
  • Compact, sealed and rugged design
  • Low maintenance
  • Single-phase powering
  • No external cooling water

Atlantic Applications

  • Drilling
  • Cutting
  • Patterning
  • Structuring
  • Ablation
  • Dicing
  • Black marking
  • Micromachining

MATERIALS

  • Various metals
  • Brittle materials, including sapphire and PCD
  • Silicon
  • PET, PP
  • Silicone
  • PCB

Atlantic UV Features

  • 30 W at 355 nm
  • 8000 h UV optics lifetime guaranteed
  • 75 µJ pulse energy
  • Short pulse duration 10 ps
  • 400 – 1000 kHz pulse repetition rates
  • Negligible output beam spatial characteristic change depending on output power
  • External synchronization and precise triggering with jitter of 7 ns (RMS)
  • Analog AOM pulse control, which helps to change energy of pulses in real time with immediate response
  • Environment resistant design for 24/7 operation
  • Individual pulse control
  • Smart triggering for synchronous operation with polygon scanner
  • Low maintenance

Atlantic UV Applications

  • OLED cutting
  • Sapphire structuring
  • Ceramics micromachining
  • PCD drilling
  • Silicon scribing
  • PET, PP, Silicone cutting and drilling

Description

Atlantic series

Atlantic series lasers have been designed as a versatile tool for a variety of industrial material processing applications. They are compact, OEM rugged, with up to 80 W output power at 1064 nm. Featuring short pulse duration Atlantic series lasers offers minimized thermal damage to the material, what is becoming more and more important in wide range of industries: photovoltaics, electronics, biomedicine, automotive.

Innovative design, employing fiber based oscillator ensured excellent output beam parameters: M²<1.3 with pulse energy fluctuations < 1 %. All optical components are placed into sealed monolithic block thus ensuring reliable 24/7 operation.

High, up to 1 MHz repetition rate, combined with low maintenance requirements establishes this laser as good choice for industrial, high throughput material processing systems, requiring speed and precision. Optical components are installed in a robust, precisely machined monolithic aluminum block, which could be used as a separate module for customized solutions. The system is sealed to provide long term stable operation in manufacturing environments. Designed for robust, low maintenance operation, the Atlantic offers maximum reliability due to an optimized layout, PC controlled operation, a built-in self-diagnostics system and advanced status reporting. Superior beam quality allows easy focusing of the laser beam into the smallest spot size at various working distances and enables processing of practically any material.

The Atlantic series has been designed as a low-maintenance-costs solution. All replacement of consumables can be performed at user facilities by trained technicians.

Atlantic UV

Ekspla, the laser company, is introducing a new picosecond high power UV laser. The Atlantic UV30 industrial picosecond laser is capable of producing 30 W of output power at 355 nm.

In the industrial market, increased reliability and decreased cost of ownership of high power and UV components is critical. The Atlantic UV30 harmonic module optical layout was optimized for longevity and stable operation in UV range. As a result, 8000 hours UV optics lifetime is guaranteed, which is more than 11 months 24/7 service free operation.

Short, 10 ps pulse duration minimizes the heat-affected zone of processed material. Due to the high 75 µJ pulse energy and UV output, the laser can be adаpted for tough processes, like OLED cutting, sapphire processing, ceramics micromachining.

Due to negligible output beam spatial characteristic change in wide output power range, the Atlantic UV30 delivers a cost saving flexibility to use the same system for employing numerous operation modes and processing of various materials.

High (up to 1 MHz) repetition rate enables this laser to be used in high throughput material processing systems requiring speed and precision.
To tailor laser performance for specific applications, advanced electronics enable important features like external synchronization and precise triggering with jitter of 7 ns (RMS), as well as analog AOM pulse control, which helps to change energy of pulses in real time with immediate response.

Ekspla employed all it’s 25 years of experience by building an advanced laser optical layout: long-life fiber master oscillator combination with amplification stages, placed in a sealed monolithic block, thus ensuring stability and resistance to possibly negative ambient conditions.

Each Atlantic UV30 laser produced at Ekspla passes strict quality control test and inspection procedures. Every single unit is checked for vibration resistance, operationally tested at different environment temperature and humidity, as well as subjected to high temperature (up to 70 °C) thermo-cycling. Prior to shipment, Ekspla performs extensive testing to verify multiple external and internal laser parameters to ensure the lasers are meeting their technical requirements.

Atlantic UV : Specifications & Performace

MODELUV1UV2HEUV8UV18UV30
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 1)
Wavelength355 nm (optional 1064 nm and/or 532 nm outputs) 2)
Pulse repetition rate (PRRL) range 3)100 – 1000 kHz30 kHz200 – 1000 kHz300 – 1000 kHz400 – 1000 kHz
Pulse repetition rate after frequency dividerPRR = PRRL / N, N=1, 2, 3, … , 1025
Maximal average output power 4)1 W2 W8 W18 W30 W
Pulse energy at lowest PRRL 4)10 µJ75 µJ40 µJ60 µJ75 µJ
Pulse contrast> 1000:1
Power long term stability over 8 h after warm-up (Std. dev.) 5)< 1 %
Pulse energy stability (Std. dev.) 6)< 1.5 %< 2.5 %
Pulse duration (FWHM) at 1064 nm10 ± 3 ps
Polarizationlinear, vertical, 100:1
M2< 1.3
Beam circularity, far field> 0.85
Beam divergence, full angle < 1.5 mrad
Beam pointing stability (pk-to-pk) 7)< 50 µRad
Beam diameter (1/e2) at 50 cm distance from laser aperture 1.1 ± 0.2 mm 2.0 ± 0.3 mm
Triggering mode internal / external
Pulse output controlfrequency divider (down to single shot), arbitrary pulse selection, power attenuation
Control interfaceskeypad / USB / RS232 / LAN
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
Mains requirements100...240 V AC, 5A, single phase 47...63 Hz
Maximal power consumption< 0.5 kW< 2.8 kW< 2.8 kW< 3.1 kW< 3.5 kW
Operating ambient temperature18 – 27 °C
Relative humidity10 – 80 % (non-condensing)
Air contamination levelISO 9 (room air) or better
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Coolingairwater
Laser head size (W × H × L)372 × 158 × 590 mm396 × 173 × 1000 mm or 396 × 173 × 926 mm for 3 outputs version
Power supply unit size (W × H × L)471 × 153 × 511 mm553 × 1019 × 852 mm
Umbilical length3 m4 m
CLASSIFICATION
Classification according EN60825-1CLASS 4 laser product
  1. Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. Parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise, all specifications are measured at 355 nm.
  2. For optical specifications of the 1064 nm and 532 nm outputs please refer to the equivalent column at the Atlantic IR and Atlantic GR specification sheets respectively.
  3. When frequency divider is set to transmit every pulse.
  4. See typical power and energy curves for other pulse repetition rates.
  5. At the lowest PRRL after warm-up under constant environmental conditions.
  6. At the lowest PRRL under constant environmental conditions.
  7. Beam pointing stability is evaluated as a movement of the beam centroid in the focal plane of a focusing element.

Atlantic Green : Specifications & Performace

MODELGR2GR3HEGR12GR25GR40
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 1)
Wavelengths532 nm (arbitrary 1064 nm output 2) )
Pulse repetition rate (PRRL) range 3)100 – 1000 kHz30 kHz200 – 1000 kHz300 – 1000 kHz400 – 1000 kHz
Pulse repetition rate after frequency dividerPRR = PRRL / N, N=1, 2, 3, … , 1025
Maximal average output power 4)2 W3 W12 W25 W40 W
Pulse energy at lowest PRRL 4)20 µJ100 µJ60 µJ85 µJ100 µJ
Pulse contrast> 500:1
Power long term stability
over 8 h after warm-up (Std. dev.) 5)
< 1 %
Pulse energy stability (Std. dev.) 6)< 1.5 %< 2 %
Pulse duration (FWHM) at 1064 nm10 ± 3 ps
Polarizationlinear, vertical, 100:1
M2< 1.3
Beam circularity, far field> 0.85
Beam divergence, full angle < 1.5 mRad
Beam pointing stability (pk-to-pk) 7)< 50 µRad
Beam diameter (1/e2) at 50 cm distance from laser aperture 1.2 ± 0.2 mm 2.2 ± 0.3 mm
Triggering mode internal / external
Pulse output controlfrequency divider (down to single shot), arbitrary pulse selection, power attenuation
Control interfaceskeypad / USB / RS232 / LAN
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
Mains requirements100...240 V AC, single phase 47...63 Hz
Maximal power consumption< 0.5 kW< 2.8 kW< 2.8 kW< 3.1 kW< 3.5 kW
Operating ambient temperature18 – 27 °C
Relative humidity10 – 80 % (non-condensing)
Air contamination levelISO 9 (room air) or better
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Coolingairwater
Laser head size (W × H × L)372 × 158 × 590 mm396 × 173 × 926 mm
Power supply unit size (W × H × L)471 × 153 × 511 mm553 × 1019 × 852 mm
Umbilical length3 m4 m
CLASSIFICATION
Classification according EN60825-1CLASS 4 laser product
  1. Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. Parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise, all specifications are measured at 532 nm.
  2. For optical specifications of the 1064 nm output please refer to the equivalent column at the Atlantic IR specification sheet.
  3. When frequency divider is set to transmit every pulse.
  4. See typical power and energy curves for other pulse repetition rates.
  5. At the lowest PRRL after warm-up under constant environmental conditions.
  6. At the lowest PRRL under constant environmental conditions.
  7. Beam pointing stability is evaluated as a movement of the beam centroid in the focal plane of a focusing element.

Atlantic IR : Specifications & Performace

MODELIR5IR6HEIR25IR50IR80
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS 1)
Wavelength 1064 nm
Pulse repetition rate (PRRL) range 2)100 – 1000 kHz30 kHz200 – 1000 kHz300 – 1000 kHz400 – 1000 kHz
Pulse repetition rate after frequency dividerPRR = PRRL / N, N=1, 2, 3, … , 1025
Maximal average output power 3)5 W6 W25 W50 W80 W
Pulse energy at lowest PRRL 3)30 µJ200 µJ125 µJ165 µJ200 µJ
Pulse contrast> 150:1> 300:1
Power long term stability
over 8 h after warm-up (Std. dev.) 4)
< 1 %
Pulse energy stability (Std. dev.) 5)< 0.8 %< 1 %
Pulse duration (FWHM)10 ± 3 ps
Polarizationlinear, vertical, 100:1
M2< 1.3
Beam circularity, far field> 0.85
Beam divergence, full angle < 2.0 mRad < 1.5 mRad
Beam pointing stability (pk-to-pk) 5)< 50 µRad
Beam diameter (1/e2) at 50 cm distance from laser aperture 1.4 ± 0.2 mm 1.8 ± 0.3 mm
Triggering mode internal / external
Pulse output controlfrequency divider (down to single shot), arbitrary pulse selection, power attenuation
Control interfaceskeypad / USB / RS232 / LAN
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
Mains requirements100...240 V AC, single phase 47...63 Hz
Maximal power consumption< 0.5 kW< 2.8 kW< 2.8 kW< 3.1 kW< 3.5 kW
Operating ambient temperature18 – 27 °C
Relative humidity10 – 80 % (non-condensing)
Air contamination levelISO 9 (room air) or better
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Coolingairwater
Laser head size (W × H × L)372 × 158 × 423 mm396 × 173 × 755 mm
Power supply unit size (W × H × L)471 × 153 × 511 mm553 × 1019 × 852 mm
Umbilical length3 m4 m
CLASSIFICATION
Classification according EN60825-1CLASS 4 laser product
  1. Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. Parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise, all specifications are measured at 1064 nm.
  2. When frequency divider is set to transmit every pulse.
  3. See typical power and energy curves for other pulse repetition rates.
  4. At the lowest PRRL after warm-up under constant environmental conditions.
  5. At the lowest PRRL under constant environmental conditions.
  6. Beam pointing stability is evaluated as a movement of the beam centroid in the focal plane of a focusing element.

Micromachining Samples

Application Notes

High power, speed and precision processing with picosecond laser and polygon scanner

Picosecond lasers in many cases have shown excellent results of material processing for diverse applications. Limiting issues remains cost and efficiency of the processes.Current developments in high repetition rate lasers provides plenty of laser pulses which are able to ablate the material. However, spatial control of focused laser beam with the high precision is needed.Assessment of Next Scan Technologies polygon scanner LSE 170 (line 170 mm; 1064/532 nm) and Ekspla Atlantic 60 picosecond laser (60 W, 13 ps, 1 MHz). Polygon scanner is equipped with f-theta objective with focal length of 190 mm and provide telecentric imaging over 170 mm long scan line. Laser pulsing was controlled synchronizing it with polygon using SuperSync™ technology from Next Scan Technologies.Applicability of laser-polygon pair in precise laser processing was tested, checking adjustment and corrections options in precise beam spot deposition to the material.

Read more about power, speed and precision processing with picosecond laser and polygon scanner (740 KB)

CIGS thin-film solar cell scribing

The picosecond laser Atlantic was used to scribe the thin-film layers in CIGS solar cells with the top contact made of ITO and ZnO. Irradiation with the 355 nm laser radiation has shown better results due to selective energy coupling.

Read about CIGS thin-film solar cell scribing with Atlantic laser (594 KB)

Scribing of a-Si thin-film solar cells

The picosecond laser Atlantic was used to scribe the thin-film layers in ZnO/a-Si/ZnO/glass solar cells.

Read about scribing of a -Si Thin-film solar cells with Atlantic laser (594 KB)

Publications

Found total :
20 articles, 20 selected
Application selected :
All Applications
All Applications
Material Processing (Industrial)
Laser Ablation
Laser Direct Writing
Glass dicing
Selective Laser Oxidation
Direct Laser Patterning
Sapphire Dicing
Selective Copper Plating
Surface Structuring
Micromachining (Industrial)
Sollar Cell Scribing
Photopolymerization
Laser Marking
Black Marking

Irradiation of Diamond-Like Carbon Films by Picosecond Laser Pulses

Related applications:  Laser Ablation Material Processing (Industrial)

Authors:  L. Marcinauskas, A. Grigonis, L. Vigricaitė, Ž. Rutkūnienė, M. Gedvilas, G. Račiukaitis

The picosecond laser irradiation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on the silicon wasinvestigated. The DLC films were irradiated by Nd:YVO4 laser with the infrared (1064 nm, fluency 1.02 J/cm2) and ultraviolet (355 nm, fluency 0.79 J/cm2) wavelengths with 1, 10, and 100 pulse numbers per spot. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and microRaman spectroscopy measurements indicated that the full ablation area of the DLC was narrower than laser beam radius of the 1064 nm wavelength with 10 and 100 pulses. The increase of the oxygen concentration was obtained near the ablation areas after irradiation with the first harmonic. The microRaman and SEM measurements demonstrated that the DLC film was fully ablated in the laser spot when the third harmonic was used. The formation of silicon carbide (SiC) in the center of the irradiated spot was found after 100 pulses.

Published: 2014.   Source: Journal of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 10(1), 43-48 (2015)

Direct laser beam patterning technique for fast high aspect ratio surface structuring

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Surface Structuring

Authors:  S. Indrišiūnas, B. Voisiat, A. Žukauskas, G. Račiukaitis

New results on development of the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technique using the interference of several beams to directly ablate the material are presented. The method is capable of producing sub-wavelength features not limited by a beam spot size and is an effective method of forming two-dimensional periodic structures on relatively large area with just a single laser shot. Surface texturing speed of DLIP method and the direct laser writing was compared. Fabrication time reduction up to a few orders of magnitude using DLIP was evaluated. The sub-period scanning technique was applied for formation of the complex periodic structures. A new method of laser scanning for fabrication of periodic structures on large areas without any visible stitching signs between laser irradiation spots was tested.

Published: 2015.   Source: Proc. SPIE 9350, 935003 (2015)

In situ formation and photo patterning of emissive quantum dots in organic small molecules

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Direct Laser Patterning

Authors:  A. K Bansal, M. T. Sajjad, F. Antolini, L. Stroea, P. Gečys, G. Raciukaitis, P. André, A. Hirzer, V. Schmidt, L. Ortolani, S. Toffanin, S. Allard, U. Scherf, I. Samuel

Nanostructured composites of inorganic and organic materials are attracting extensive interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. Here we report a novel method for the fabrication and patterning of metal selenide nanoparticles in organic semiconductor films that is compatible with solution processable large area device manufacturing. Our approach is based upon the controlled in situ decomposition of a cadmium selenide precursor complex in a film of the electron transporting material 1,3,5-tris(N-phenyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI) by thermal and optical methods. In particular, we show that the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the thermally converted CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in the TPBI film is up to 15%. We also show that laser illumination can form the QDs from the precursor. This is an important result as it enables direct laser patterning (DLP) of the QDs. DLP was performed on these nanocomposites using a picosecond laser. Confocal microscopy shows the formation of emissive QDs after laser irradiation. The optical and structural properties of the QDs were also analysed by means of UV-Vis, PL spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the QDs are well distributed across the film and their emission can be tuned over a wide range by varying the temperature or irradiated laser power on the blend films. Our findings provide a route to the low cost patterning of hybrid electroluminescent devices.

Published: 2015.   Source: Nanoscale, 7(25), 11163-11172 (2015)

Flexible periodical micro- and nano-structuring of stainless steel surface by dual-wavelength double-pulse picosecond laser irradiation

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Surface Structuring

Authors:  M. Gedvilas, J. Mikšys, G. Račiukaitis

The picosecond laser-induced ripple formation on the stainless steel surface upon irradiation with linearly-polarized single-pulse and dual-wavelength cross-polarized double-pulse trains in air was studied experimentally. The characteristic switching of the ripple period and orientation were observed depending on the inter-pulse delay in the dual-wavelength cross-polarized double-pulse train irradiation experiments.

Published: 2015.   Source: RSC Advances, 5, 75075–75080 (2015)

Colour-difference measurement method for evaluation of quality of electrolessly deposited copper on polymer after laser-induced selective activation

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Selective Copper Plating

Authors:  M. Gedvilas, K. Ratautas, E. Kacar, I. Stankevičienė, A. Jagminienė, E. Norkus, N. Li Pira, G. Račiukaitis

In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions.

Published: 2016.   Source: Scientific Reports, 57, 22963 (2016)

Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Selective Copper Plating

Authors:  K. Ratautas, M. Gedvilas, I. Stankevičienė, A. Jagminienė, E. Norkus, N. Li Pira, S. Sinopoli, U. Emanuele, G. Račiukaitis

Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals.

In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

Published: 2016.   Source: Proc. SPIE 9735, Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing (LAMOM) XXI, 973507 (2016)

Picosecond Laser Modification of CIGS Active Layer

Related applications:  Sollar Cell Scribing Micromachining (Industrial)

Authors:  P. Gečys, E. Markauskas, A. Žemaitis, G. Račiukaitis

Cu-chalcopyrite based solar cells such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have been established as the most efficient thin-film technology in converting sunlight into electricity. Laser scribed monolithic interconnects are one of the key technologies which will play a significant role in future develop-ments of CIGS technology. Laser scribing is needed to maintain module efficiency by dividing large scale device to smaller cells interconnected in series. CIGS layer is a thermally sensitive material, and laser modification can induce local structural changes of the active layer and significantly modi-fy the electrical properties. Therefore, the laser modified region can act as series interconnect be-tween the adjacent cells. In this study, we investigated the laser modification of the CIGS active layer with picosecond laser. The EDS analysis revealed the increase of Cu/(In+Ga) ratio in laser treated areas while Raman measurements indicated changes in main CIGS peak and formation of the Cu-rich CuGaSe2 phase. Therefore, this resulted in significant electrical conductivity increase in laser-treated areas. Electrical testing of the laser performed P2 micro-welds showed scribe conduc-tivities up to 9.3 Ω·cm which are acceptable for the cell serial interconnection.

Published: 2016.   Source: J. of Laser Micro/Nanoengineering, 11(2) 257-260 (2016)

Picosecond laser registration of interference pattern by oxidation of thin Cr films

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Selective Laser Oxidation

Authors:  V. Veiko, M. Yarchuk, R. Zakoldaev, M. Gedvilas, G. Račiukaitis, M. Kuzivanov, A. Baranov

The laser oxidation of thin metallic films followed by its selective chemical etching is a promising method for the formation of binary metal structures on the glass substrates. It is important to confirm that even a single ultrashort laser pulse irradiation is able to create the protective oxide layer that makes possible to imprint the thermochemical image.

Results of the thermo-chemical treatment of thin chromium films irradiated by picosecond laser pulse utilizing two and four beam interference combined with the chemical etching are presented. The spatial resolution of this method can be high enough due to thermo-chemical sharpening and can be close to the diffraction limit. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the chemical composition of the protective oxide layers formed under atmospheric conditions on the surface of thin chromium films.

Published: 2017.   Source: Applied Surface Science, 404, 63-66 (2017)

Photo-polymerization differences by using nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses

Related applications:  Photopolymerization Micromachining (Industrial)

Authors:  E. Stankevičius, E. Daugnoraitė, A. Selskis, S. Juodkazis, G. Račiukaitis

Formation of polymeric pillars by using laser interference lithography is compared for nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses. The experimental results are explained by dynamics of laser-excited radicals. The shape of fabricated structures demonstrates that thermal accumulation and oxygen diffusion from the surrounding air make an influence on polymerization when the pulse duration is in the nanosecond range. By using picosecond laser pulses, the thermal accumulation and oxygen diffusion effects are not important for low repetition rate (500 Hz), and they become relevant only at the repetition rates higher than ≥ 1 kHz. It is shown that thermal accumulation is caused by a low-temperature diffusivity and heat accumulation at the polymer-glass interface, and it plays a significant role in the final shape of the structures fabricated using the nanosecond laser pulses.

Published: 2017.   Source: Optics Express, 25(5) 4819- 4830 (2017)

Multi-photon absorption enhancement by dual-wavelength double-pulse laser irradiation for efficient dicing of sapphire wafers

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Sapphire Dicing

Authors:  M. Gedvilas, J. Mikšys, J. Berzinš, V. Stankevič, G. Račiukaitis

The evidence of multi-photon absorption enhancement by the dual-wavelength double-pulse laser irradiation in transparent sapphire was demonstrated experimentally and explained theoretically for the first time. Two collinearly combined laser beams with the wavelengths of 1064 nm and 355 nm, inter-pulse delay of 0.1 ns, and pulse duration of 10 ps were used to induce intra-volume modifications in sapphire. The theoretical prediction of using a particular orientation angle of 15 degrees of the half-wave plate for the most efficient absorption of laser irradiation is in good agreement with the experimental data. The new innovative effect of multi-photon absorption enhancement by dual-wavelength double-pulse irradiation allowed utilisation of the laser energy up to four times more efficiently for initiation of internal modifications in sapphire. The new absorption enhancement effect has been used for efficient intra-volume dicing and singulation of transparent sapphire wafers. The dicing speed of 150 mm/s was achieved for the 430 μm thick sapphire wafer by using the laser power of 6.8 W at the repetition rate of 100 kHz. This method opens new opportunities for the manufacturers of the GaN-based light-emitting diodes by fast and precise separation of sapphire substrates.

Published: 2017.   Source: Scientific Reports, 7, 5218 (2017)

Fluorescence Microscopy Study of CdS quantum dots Obtained by Laser Irradiation from a Single Source Precursor in Polymeric Film

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Direct Laser Patterning

Authors:  F. Antolini, M. Lanzi, G. Raciukaitis

Recently the quantum dots (QDs) synthesis from single source precursors (SSPs) showed a potential interest for patterning formation of nano-composites. In this approach the SSPs have to be mixed with a matrix that afterwards is treated selectively to obtain the desired nanocomposite. The study of the generation of the QDs from the SSPs is, therefore, crucial for the definition of its behaviour within the polymeric matrix.

The formation of the CdS QDs via thermolysis of the cadmium diethyldithiocarbamate (CdDDTC) was performed and studied in the presence of a non coordinating solvent such as octadecene (ODE) in presence of myristic acid (MA) as ligand.

The precursor is then studied in combination with the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer for the generation of the CdS QDs under the laser irradiation within a film. The effect of the laser has been studied both on neat PMMA and on the polymer/precursor blend film with the aid of the fluorescence microscope.

The results are used to identify the optimal laser parameters to obtain the decomposition of the precursor and to evaluate the effect of the laser irradiation on the polymer.

Published: 2017.   Source: Materials Today: Proceedings, 4, Supplement 1, s19-s26 (2017)

Compact diffractive optics for THz imaging

Related applications:  Laser Direct Writing Material Processing (Industrial)

Authors:  L. Minkevičius, S. Indrišiūnas, R. Šniaukas, G. Račiukaitis, V. Janonis, V. Tamošiūnas, I. Kašalynas, G. Valušis

We present a compact diffractive silicon-based multilevel phase Fresnel lens (MPFL) with up to 50 mm in diameter and a numerical aperture up to 0.86 designed and fabricated for compact terahertz (THz) imaging systems. The laser direct writing technology based on a picosecond laser was used to fabricate diffractive optics on silicon with a different number of phase quantization levels P reaching an almost kinoform spherical surface needed for efficient THz beam focusing. Focusing performance was investigated by measuring Gaussian beam intensity distribution in the focal plane and along the optical axis of the lens. The beam waist and the focal depth for each MPFL were evaluated. The influence of the phase quantization number on the focused beam amplitude was estimated, and the power transmission efficiency reaching more than 90% was revealed. The THz imaging of less than 1 mm using a robust 50 mm diameter multilevel THz lens was achieved and demonstrated at 580 GHz frequency.

Published: 2018.   Source: Lith. J. Phys. 58, 99-107 (2018)

Processing of ultra-hard materials with picosecond pulses: From research work to industrial applications

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial)

Authors:  V. Stankevič, A. Čermák, S. Mikalauskas, P. Kožmín, S. Indrišiūnas, G. Račiukaitis

The ultrashort laser processing of the cutting tools and cutting inserts from tungsten carbide, ceramic and metal composites (CERMET), and polycrystalline diamond materials was demonstrated, and the ablation rates of mentioned ultra-hard materials were evaluated for a laser wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm. The optimal processing throughput was estimated. Laser manufacturing was performed with the five-axis computer numerical control (CNC) machine and scanner for beam translation with the high speed and the ultrashort ∼12 ps pulse duration high repetition rate laser source. The systematic approach was implemented in an experimental variation of process parameters that play a significant role in processing quality. By varying the laser fluence, pulse overlap, and layers’ count, different material removing rates can be achieved from 300 nm/layer to ∼18 μm/layer. The submicrometer removing rate involves a high precision control of the structure depth. It was demonstrated that only by a minor change of the processing parameters, the surface roughness of the material could be minimized down to Ra < 300 nm. Rough and smooth processing can be combined to optimize the structure processing throughput.

Published: 2018.   Source: Journal of Laser Applications. 30, 032201 (2018)

Advanced laser scanning for highly-efficient ablation and ultrafast surface structuring: experiment and model

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Surface Structuring

Authors:  A. Žemaitis, M. Gaidys, M. Brikas, P. Gečys, G. Račiukaitis, M. Gedvilas

Ultra-short laser pulses are frequently used for material removal (ablation) in science, technology and medicine. However, the laser energy is often used inefficiently, thus, leading to low ablation rates. For the efficient ablation of a rectangular shaped cavity, the numerous process parameters such as scanning speed, distance between scanned lines, and spot size on the sample, have to be optimized. Therefore, finding the optimal set of process parameters is always a time-demanding and challenging task. Clear theoretical understanding of the influence of the process parameters on the material removal rate can improve the efficiency of laser energy utilization and enhance the ablation rate. In this work, a new model of rectangular cavity ablation is introduced. The model takes into account the decrease in ablation threshold, as well as saturation of the ablation depth with increasing number of pulses per spot. Scanning electron microscopy and the stylus profilometry were employed to characterize the ablated depth and evaluate the material removal rate. The numerical modelling showed a good agreement with the experimental results. High speed mimicking of bio-inspired functional surfaces by laser irradiation has been demonstrated.

Published: 2018.   Source: Scientific. Reports. 8, 17376 (2018)

Glass dicing with elliptical Bessel beam

Related applications:  Glass dicing Material Processing (Industrial)

Authors:  J. Dudutis, R. Stonys, G. Račiukaitis, P. Gečys

In this paper the possibility to optimize the glass dicing process by controlling the axicon-generated Bessel beam ellipticity is presented. Single-shot intra-volume modifications in soda-lime glass followed by dicing experiments of 1 mm-thick samples are performed. The Bessel beam ellipticity is essential for glass dicing process. Such beam generates intra-volume modifications with transverse crack propagation in dominant direction. Orientation of these modifications parallel to the dicing direction gives significant advantages in terms of processing speed, glass breaking force and cutting quality.

Published: 2019.   Source: Optics & Laser Technology, 111, 331-337 (2019)

Rapid high-quality 3D micro-machining by optimised efficient ultrashort laser ablation

Related applications:  Laser Ablation Material Processing (Industrial)

Authors:  A. Žemaitis, M. Gaidys, P. Gečys, G. Račiukaitis, M. Gedvilas

Solid-state lasers with pulse duration of 10 ps and radiation wavelength of 1064 nm were used to investigate the laser ablation efficiency dependence on processing parameters: laser fluence (pulse energy and beam spot size), beam scanning speed, pulse repetition rate, and scanned line (hatch) distance for the copper sample. Utilising a 40 W power laser, the highest ablation efficiency of 2.5 µm3/µJ and the ablation rate of 100 µm3/µs with the smallest surface roughness of 0.2 µm was obtained. Three-dimensional (3D) fabrication using a galvanometer scanner and layer-by-layer removal technique with optimal parameters defined for efficient ablation were demonstrated at a rate of 6 mm3/min. Combination of high material removal rate with excellent quality and complex 3D structure formation is in a high interest for mimicking bio-inspired surfaces, micro-mould fabrication and decorative applications.

Published: 2019.   Source: Opt. Lasers Eng. 114, 83-89 (2019)

Laser-assisted selective copper deposition on commercial PA6 by catalytic electroless plating – process and activation mechanism

Related applications:  Material Processing (Industrial) Surface Structuring

Authors:  K. Ratautas, A. Jagminienė, I. Stankevičienė, E. Norkus, G. Račiukaitis

Results of in-depth experimental analysis of the laser-assisted local copper deposition on commercial Polyamide 6 (PA 6) are presented. Pico- and nanosecond lasers were validated for surface modification of the polymer followed by silver (I) activation and finished by autocatalytic electroless copper plating on the laser-modified areas. Detailed investigations were dedicated to finding out the origin of selective metal plating, including the surface profiling and wettability dynamics, XPS analysis and electric resistance measurements of the deposited copper layer. Based on the experimental data, the mechanism of the polymer surface activation by the laser modification is proposed.

Published: 2019.   Source: Applied Surface Science, 470, 405-410, (2019)

Picosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation for the Surface Preparation of Epoxy Composites

Related applications:  Laser Ablation Material Processing (Industrial)

Authors:  F. Palmieri, R. Ledesma, T. Fulton, A. Arthur, K. Eldridge, S. Thibeault, Y. Lin, C. Wohl, J. Connell

As part of a technical challenge under the Advanced Composites Program, methods for improving pre-bond process control for aerospace composite surface treatments and inspections, in conjunction with Federal Aviation Administration guidelines, are under investigation. The overall goal is to demonstrate high fidelity, rapid and reproducible surface treatment and surface characterization methods to reduce uncertainty associated with the bonding process. The desired outcomes are reliable bonded airframe structure, and reduced timeline to certification. In this work, laser ablation was conducted using a q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser capable of nominal pulse durations of 8 picoseconds (ps). Aerospace structural carbon fiber reinforced composites with an epoxy resin matrix were laser treated, characterized, processed into bonded assemblies and mechanically tested. The characterization of ablated surfaces were conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA) goniometry, micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (μLIBS), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The bond performance was assessed using a double cantilever beam (DCB) test with an epoxy adhesive. The surface characteristics and bond performance obtained from picosecond ablated carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) are presented herein.

Published: 2017.   Source: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170006187

High Power, Speed and Precision Processing with Picosecond Laser and Polygon Scanner

Related applications:  Laser Marking Micromachining (Industrial)

Authors:  P. Gečys, M. Gedvilas, L. Jacinavičius, R. De Loor, G. Račiukaitis

Picosecond lasers in many cases have shown excellent results of material processing for diverse applications. Limiting issues remains cost and efficiency of the processes. Current developments in high repetition rate lasers provides plenty of laser pulses which are able to ablate the material. However, spatial control of focused laser beam with the high precision is needed. Assessment of Next Scan Technologies polygon scanner LSE 170 (line 170 mm; 1064/532 nm) and Ekspla Atlantic 60 picosecond laser (60 W, 13 ps, 1 MHz).  Polygon scanner is equipped with f-theta objective with focal length of 190 mm and provide telecentric imaging over 170 mm long scan line. Laser pulsing was controlled synchronizing it with polygon using SuperSync™ technology from Next Scan Technologies. Applicability of laser-polygon pair in precise laser processing was tested, checking adjustment and corrections options in precise beam spot deposition to the material.

Published: 2015.   Source: Ekspla Application notes. Issue № AN1502IL01

Corrosion Resistive Laser Marking of Stainless Steel by Atlantic Series Picosecond Laser

Related applications:  Black Marking Micromachining (Industrial)

Authors:  M. Gedvilas, G, Račiukaitis

Medical tools and other devices made of stainless steel (SS) require laser markings for unique device identification (UDI). These markings need to be corrosion resistant in order to withstand numerous autoclave cycles. EKSPLA with FTMC has developed a picosecond laser marking system – for reliable UDI marks on surgical and spring grade of stainless steel for corrosion resistive applications.

Published: 2017.   Source: Ekspla Application notes.

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