NL300 series

Compact Flash-lamp Pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG Lasers
  • Compact high energy nanosecond lasers
  • Up to 1200 mJ
  • Up to 213 nm harmonics modules
  • Motorized attenuators
  • 5 – 20 Hz pulse repetition rates
  • Compact high energy nanosecond lasers
  • Up to 1200 mJ
  • Up to 213 nm harmonics modules
  • Motorized attenuators
  • 5 – 20 Hz pulse repetition rates

Features & Applications


  • Rugged sealed laser cavity
  • Up to 1200 mJ pulse energy
  • Better than 1 % StDev pulse energy stability
  • 5 – 20 Hz pulse repetition rate
  • 3 – 6 ns pulse duration
  • Thermo stabilized second, third, fourth and fifth harmonic generator modules
  • Optional attenuators for fundamental and/or harmonic wavelengths
  • Water-to-water or water-to-air cooling options
  • Replacement of flashlamps without misalignment of laser cavity
  • Remote control via keypad and/or RS232/USB port


  • High pulse energy (up to 1.2 J at 1064 nm, 450 mJ at 355 nm) ensures strong interaction with material which is excellent for LIBS and material ablation applications
  • Cost-effective, single-cavity design with no amplifiers for easy alignment, high reliability and low maintenance costs
  • Small size saves valuable space in the laboratory room
  • Fast flashlamp replacement without realignment of laser cavity ensures easy maintenance
  • Air cooling enables simple installation, easy operation and low maintenance costs
  • Variety of interfaces: USB, RS232, LAN and WiFi ensures easy integration with other equipment


  • Material ablation
  • LIBS (Light Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy)
  • OPO pumping
  • Remote Sensing
  • LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging)
  • Mass Spectroscopy
  • LIF (Light Induced Fluorescence)


NL300 series electro-optically Q-switched nanosecond Nd:YAG lasers produce high energy pulses with 3 – 6 ns duration. Pulse repetition rate can be selected in range of 5 – 20 Hz. NL30×HT models are designed for maximum energy extraction from the active element. Up to 1200 mJ pulse energy can be produced at a 5 Hz pulse repetition rate.

A wide range of harmonic generator modules for generation up to a 5th harmonic is available. Harmonic generators can be combined with attenuators that allow smooth output energy adjustment without changing other laser parameters, i.e. pulse duration, pulse-to-pulse stability, divergence or beam profile. For a more detailed description of harmonic and attenuator modules please check our harmonic generators selection guide.

The extremely compact laser head is approximately 480 mm long and can be fitted into tight spaces. The laser power supply has a 330 × 490 mm footprint. Easy access to the water tank from the back side of the power supply facilitates laser maintenance. Replacement of flashlamp does not require removal of pump chamber from the laser cavity and does not lead to possible misalignment.

The powering unit can be configured with water-to-water or water-to-air heat exchangers. The latter option allows for laser operation without the use of tap water for cooling. For customer convenience the laser can be controlled via PS with LabView™ drivers (included) or a remote control pad. Both options allow easy control of laser settings.


Pulse repetition rate10 Hz20 Hz5 Hz10 Hz
Pulse energy:
    at 1064 nm800 mJ700 mJ1200 mJ1100 mJ
    at 532 nm 2)380 mJ320 mJ700 mJ500 mJ
    at 355 nm 3)250 mJ210 mJ450 mJ320 mJ
    at 266 nm 4)80 mJ60 mJ120 mJ100 mJ
    at 213 nm 5)13 mJ10 mJ25 mJ20 mJ
Pulse energy stability (Std. Dev.) 6)
    at 1064 nm1 %
    at 532 nm1.5 %
    at 355 nm3 %
    at 266 nm3.5 %
    at 213 nm6 %
Power drift 7)±2 %
Pulse duration 8)3 – 6 ns
Polarization vertical, >90 %vertical, >65 %
Optical pulse jitter 9)< 0.5 ns rms
Beam profile 10)"Hat-Top" in near and near Gaussian in far fields
Typical beam diameter 11)~ 8 mm~ 10 mm
Beam divergence 12)< 0.6 mrad
Beam pointing stability 13)50 µrad rms
Beam height68 mm
Laser head size (W × L × H) 14)154 × 475 × 128 mm
Power supply unit (W × L × H)330 × 490 × 585 mm
Umbilical length 2.5 m
Water consumption (max 20 °C) 15)< 8 l/min< 12 l/min< 6 l/min< 10 l/min
Room temperature15–30 °C
Relative humidity 20–80 % (non-condensing)
Power requirements 16) 17)208–240 V AC, single phase 50/60 Hz
Power consumption 18)< 1 kVA< 1.5 kVA< 1 kVA< 1.5 kVA
  1. Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. The parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise all specifications are measured at 1064 nm and for basic system without options.
  2. With H300SH, H300S or H300SHC harmonics generator modules. See harmonics generator selection guide for more detailed information.
  3. With H300THC, H300STH and H300ST harmonics generator modules. See harmonics generator selection guide for more detailed information.
  4. With H300SH and H400FHC harmonics generator modules. See harmonics generator selection guide for more detailed information.
  5. With H300FiHC harmonics generator module. See harmonics generator selection guide for more detailed information.
  6. Averaged from pulses, emitted during 30 sec time interval.
  7. Measured over 8 hours period after 20 min warm-up when ambient temperature variation is less than ±2 °C.
  8. FWHM.
  9. Relative to SYNC OUT pulse.
  10. Near field (at the output aperture) TOP HAT fit is >70%.
  11. Beam diameter is measured at 1064 nm at the 1/e² level.
  12. Full angle measured at the 1/e² level.
  13. Beam pointing stability is evaluated as movement of the beam centroid in the focal plane of a focusing element.
  14. See harmonics generator selection guide for harmonics generators units sizes.
  15. For water cooled version. Air cooled version does not require tap water for cooling.
  16. Power requirements should be specified when ordering.
  17. 110 V AC powering is available, please inquiry for details.
  18. Required current rating can be calculated by dividing power value by mains voltage value.

Note: Laser must be connected to the mains electricity all the time. If there will be no mains electricity for longer that 1 hour then laser (system) needs warm up for a few hours before switching on.


Option – AW – air-cooled power supply option. An adequate air conditioner should be installed in order to keep room temperature stable.

Harmonics generator options – an extensive selection of harmonics generators up to 5th harmonics.

Attenuator options allow a smooth change of laser pulse energy, while other laser pulse parameters, such as pulse duration, jitter, pulse-to-pulse stability, beam divergence and profile remain the same.

Harmonic generators & attenuators

Harmonic generators

Nanosecond Q-switched lasers enable simple and cost effective laser wavelength conversion to shorter wavelengths through harmonics generation. EKSPLA offers a broad selection of wavelength conversion accessories for NL300 series lasers. The purpose of this guide is to help configure available harmonic generator and attenuator modules for NL300 series lasers for optimal performance.

The harmonics module uses a modular design that allows reconfiguration of laser output for the appropriate experiment wavelength. A typical module houses a non-linear crystal together with a set of dichroic mirrors for separating the harmonic beam from the fundamental wavelength. Nonlinear crystals used for the purpose of wavelength conversion are kept at an elevated temperature in a thermo-stabilized oven. Two or more modules can be joined together for higher harmonics generation: attaching one extra module to a second harmonic generator allows for the generation of 3rd or 4th harmonic wavelengths.

It should be noted that only modules with a single output port can be joined together: it is possible to attach a H300S module to a H300SH unit for 532 nm beam separation, or a H300FHC module for 4th harmonics generation (see detailed description below). Modules with two output ports (e.g., H300SHC) cannot be attached to extra units.


NL300 series lasers offer several options for changing output pulse energy. The easiest option is to change the timing of the Q-switch opening relative to the flashlamp pump pulse. This option is a standard feature for all NL300 series lasers. A change in Q-switch timing, however, changes other laser pulse parameters along with the pulse energy. A decrease in pulse energy results in longer pulse duration, decreased pulse-to-pulse-stability, and possible changes in the spatial beam profile. For applications that require smooth adjustment of output pulse energy while keeping other parameters stable, EKSPLA offers H300Ax series attenuator modules.

Selecting the right module

The following are suggested optimal configurations of H300 series modules for various output wavelengths:

1. For 2nd harmonics output only: the H300SHC module.

2. For 2nd and 3rd harmonics:
a) H300SH+H300S+H300THC – for SH and TH output as specified in the NL300 series brochure.
b) H300STH+H300ST – a cost-effective solution not requiring the replacement of modules when changing from a 532 nm to 355 nm beam and vice versa. The 532 nm beam specification will, however, be 15% lower relative to the values in the NL300 series brochure due to extra components in the beam path.

3. For 2nd and 4th harmonics: H300SH+H300S+H300FHC modules.

4. For all harmonics including 4th:
a) H300STH+H300ST+H300FHC – a cost-effective solution. The 266 nm and 532 nm beam specifications will be 15% lower relative to the values in the NL300 series brochure.
b) H300SH+H300S+H300THC+H300FHC – a slightly more expensive solution with output values adhering to those in the NL300 series brochure.

5. For all harmonics including 5th: modules described in paragraph #4 plus the H300FiHC module.

6. For attenuators for all wavelengths up to the 4th harmonic: H300SH+H300A2+H300TH+H300A3+H300A4 modules.

Harmonic generators and attenuators selection guide can be downloaded from this link.



Found total :
11 articles, 11 selected
Application selected :
All Applications
All Applications
Scientific Applications
High Intensity Sources – laser produced plasma, x-ray source, extreme UV
Plasma Physics
X-ray Coherence Tomography
Laser Spectroscopy
LIBS – laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
Time-resolved Spectroscopy

Effects of pressure and substrate temperature on the growth of Al-doped ZnO films by pulsed laser deposition

Related applications:  Plasma Physics

Authors:  Reeson Kek, Kwan-Chu Tan, Chen Hon Nee, Seong Ling Yap, Song Foo Koh, Abdul Kariem Bin Hj Mohd Arof, Teck Yong Tou, Seong Shan Yap

Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) by pulsed laser deposition from a composite ceramic target (ZnO:Al2O3) by using 355 nm laser at different O2 background pressure and substrate temperature. Upon ablation at laser fluence of 2 Jcm−2, plasma plume consists of Zn neutrals and ions, Al neutrals and O neutral are formed. As the O2 background pressure increases from 3 Pa to 26 Pa, the energy of the plasma species are moderated. The results show that the ions density and velocity reduced significantly above 13 Pa. The velocity of the ions reduced from 14 kms−1 to 11 kms−1 at 13 Pa, while the ions energy reduced from 63 eV to 42 eV respectively. Below 13 Pa, crystalline and homogeneous AZO nanostructured films were formed. Above 13 Pa, the process results in low crystallinity films with higher porosity. The resistivity of the films also increases from 0.1 ohmcm to 24 ohmcm as the pressure increased. At fixed O2 background pressure of 3 Pa, the adatom mobility of atoms on the substrates is altered by substrate heating. The resistivity of the films decreased to 10–3 ohmcm when the substrates are heated to 100 °C–300 °C during deposition. The films with highest carrier density of 1020 cm−3 and carrier mobility of 13 cmV−1 s−1 are achieved at 200 °C.

Published: 2020.   Source: Mater. Res. Express 7 016414

Iminothioindoxyl as a molecular photoswitch with 100 nm band separation in the visible range

Related applications:  Laser Spectroscopy Time-resolved Spectroscopy

Authors:  Mark W.H. Hoorens, Miroslav Medved, Adèle D. Laurent, Mariangela Di Donato, Samuele Fanetti, Laura Slappendel, Michiel Hilbers, Ben L Feringa, Wybren Jan Buma, Wiktor Szymanski

Light is an exceptional external stimulus for establishing precise control over the properties and functions of chemical and biological systems, which is enabled through the use of molecular photoswitches. Ideal photoswitches are operated with visible light only, show large separation of absorption bands and are functional in various solvents including water, posing an unmet challenge. Here we show a class of fully-visible-light-operated molecular photoswitches, Iminothioindoxyls (ITIs) that meet these requirements. ITIs show a band separation of over 100 nm, isomerize on picosecond time scale and thermally relax on millisecond time scale. Using a combination of advanced spectroscopic and computational techniques, we provide the rationale for the switching behavior of ITIs and the influence of structural modifications and environment, including aqueous solution, on their photochemical properties. This research paves the way for the development of improved photo-controlled systems for a wide variety of applications that require fast responsive functions.

Published: 2019.   Source: Nature Communications, vol. 10, art. 2390 (2019)

Conversion efficiency of a laser-plasma source based on a Xe jet in the vicinity of a wavelength of 11 nm

Related applications:  High Intensity Sources

Authors:  N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Garakhin, A. Ya. Lopatin, A. N. Nechay, A. E. Pestov, V. N. Polkovnikov, N. N. Salashchenko, N. N. Tsybin, S. Yu. Zuev

We optimized the parameters of a laser-produced plasma source based on a solid-state Nd: YAG laser (λ = 1.06 nm, pulse duration 4 ns, energy per pulse up to 500 mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz, lens focus distance 45 mm, maximum power density of laser radiation in focus 9 x 1011 W/cm2) and a double-stream Xe/He gas jet to obtain a maximum of radiation intensity around 11 nm wavelength. It was shown that the key factor determining the ionization composition of the plasma is the jet density.With the decreased density, the ionization composition shifts toward a smaller degree of ionization, which leads to an increase in emission peak intensity around 11 nm.We attribute the dominant spectral feature centred near 11 nm originating from an unidentified 4d-4f transition array in Xe+10...+13 ions. The exact position of the peak and the bandwidth of the emission line were determined. We measured the dependence of the conversion efficiency of laser energy into an EUV in-band energy with a peak at 10.82 nm from the xenon pressure and the distance between the nozzle and the laser focus. The maximum conversion efficiency (CE) into the spectral band of 10–12 nm measured at a distance between the nozzle and the laser beam focus of 0.5 mm was CE = 4.25 ± 0.30%. The conversion efficiencies of the source in-bands of 5 and 12 mirror systems at two wavelengths of 10.8 and 11.2 nm have been evaluated; these efficiencies may be interesting for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography.

Published: 2018.   Source: AIP Advances 8, 105003 (2018)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) with 2 nm axial resolution using a compact laser plasma soft X-ray source

Related applications:  Plasma Physics X-ray Coherence Tomography

Authors:  Przemysław Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Henryk Fiedorowicz

We present optical coherence tomography (OCT) with 2 nm axial resolution using broadband soft X-ray radiation (SXR) from a compact laser plasma light source. The laser plasma was formed by the interaction of nanosecond laser pulses with a gaseous target in a double stream gas puff target approach. The source was optimized for efficient SXR emission from the krypton/helium gas puff target in the 2 to 5 nm spectral range, encompassing the entire “water-window” spectral range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm wavelength. The coherence parameters of the SXR radiation allowed for the OCT measurements of a bulk multilayer structure with 10 nm period and 40% bottom layer thickness to period ratio, with an axial resolution of about 2 nm and detect multilayer interfaces up to a depth of about 100 nm. The experimental data are in agreement with OCT simulations performed on ideal multilayer structure. In the paper, detailed information about the source, its optimization, the optical system, OCT measurements and the results are presented and discussed.

Published: 2018.   Source: Scientific Reports, vol. 8, art. 8494 (2018)

XUV generation from the interaction of pico- and nanosecond laser pulses with nanostructured targets

Related applications:  High Intensity Sources

Authors:  E. F. Barte, R. Lokasani, J. Proska, L. Stolcova, O. Maguire, D. Kos, P. Sheridan, F. O’Reilly, E. Sokell, T. McCormack, G. O’Sullivan, P. Dunne, J. Limpouch

Laser-produced plasmas are intense sources of XUV radiation that can be suitable for different applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography, beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging. In particular, much work has focused on the use of tin plasmas for extreme ultraviolet lithography at 13.5 nm. We have investigated the spectral behavior of the laser produced plasmas formed on closely packed polystyrene microspheres and porous alumina targets covered by a thin tin layer in the spectral region from 2.5 to 16 nm. Nd:YAG lasers delivering pulses of 170 ps (Ekspla SL312P )and 7 ns (Continuum Surelite) duration were focused onto the nanostructured targets coated with tin. The intensity dependence of the recorded spectra was studied; the conversion efficiency (CE) of laser energy into the emission in the 13.5 nm spectral region was estimated. We have observed an increase in CE using high intensity 170 ps Nd:YAG laser pulses as compared with a 7 ns pulse.

Published: 2017.   Source: SPIE 10243, X-ray Lasers and Coherent X-ray Sources: Development and Applications, 1024315 (2017);

Development and characterization of a laser-plasma soft X-ray source for contact microscopy

Related applications:  High Intensity Sources

Authors:  M.G. Ayele, P.W. Wachulak, J. Czwartos, D. Adjei, A. Bartnik, Ł. Wegrzynski, M. Szczurek, L. Pina, H. Fiedorowicz

In this work, we present a compact laser-produced plasma source of X-rays, developed and characterized for application in soft X-ray contact microscopy (SXCM). The source is based on a double stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercially available Nd:YAG laser, delivering pulses with energy up to 740 mJ and 4 ns pulse duration at 10 Hz repetition rate. The target is formed by pulsed injection of a stream of high-Z gas (argon) into a cloud of low Z-gas (helium) by using an electromagnetic valve with a double nozzle setup. The source is designed to irradiate specimens, both in vacuum and in helium atmosphere with nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays in the ‘‘water-window” spectral range. The source is capable of delivering a photon fluence of about 1.09 x 103 photon/µm2/pulse at a sample placed in vacuum at a distance of about 20 mm downstream the source. It can also deliver a photon fluence of about 9.31 x 102 - photons/µm2/pulse at a sample placed in a helium atmosphere at the same position. The source design and results of the characterization measurements as well as the optimization of the source are presented and discussed. The source was successfully applied in the preliminary experiments on soft X-ray contact microscopy and images of microstructures and biological specimens with ~80 nm half-pitch spatial resolution, obtained in helium atmosphere, are presented.

Published: 2017.   Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 411 (2017) 35–43

Initiation of vacuum insulator surface high-voltage flashover with electrons produced by laser illumination

Related applications:  Plasma Physics

Authors:  Ya. E. Krasik, J. G. Leopold

In this paper, experiments are described in which cylindrical vacuum insulator samples and samples inclined at 45° relative to the cathode were stressed by microsecond timescale high-voltage pulses and illuminated by focused UV laser beam pulses. In these experiments, we were able to distinguish between flashover initiated by the laser producing only photo-electrons and when plasma is formed. It was shown that flashover is predominantly initiated near the cathode triple junction. Even dense plasma formed near the anode triple junction does not necessarily lead to vacuum surface flashover. The experimental results directly confirm our conjecture that insulator surface breakdown can be avoided by preventing its initiation [J. G. Leopold et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 060401 (2007)] and complement our previous experimental results [J. Z. Gleizer et al., IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 21, 2394 (2014) and J. Z. Gleizer et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 073301 (2015)].

Published: 2015.   Source: Physics of Plasmas 22, 083109 (2015)

EUV spectra from highly charged terbium ions in optically thin and thick plasmas

Related applications:  High Intensity Sources

Authors:  C Suzuki, F Koike, I Murakami, N Tamura, S Sudo, E Long, J Sheil, E White, F O'Reilly, E Sokell, P Dunne, G O'Sullivan

We have observed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from terbium (Tb) ions in optically thin and thick plasmas for a comparative study. The experimental spectra are recorded in optically thin, magnetically conned torus plasmas and dense laser-produced plasmas (LPPs). The main feature of the spectra is quasicontinuum emission with a peak around 6.5-6.6 nm, the bandwidth of which is narrower in the torus plasmas than in the LPPs. A comparison between the two types of spectra also suggests strong opacity effects in the LPPs. A comparison with the calculated line strength distributions gives a qualitative interpretation of the observed spectra.

Published: 2015.   Source: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 583 (2015) 012007 (2015)

Enhancement of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Detection Limit Using a Low-Pressure and Short-Pulse Laser-Induced Plasma Process

Related applications:  Laser Spectroscopy LIBS

Authors:  Z. Zhen Wang, Y. Deguchi, M. Kuwahara, J. Jie Yan, J. Ping Liu

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis because of the fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and noncontact features. One of the challenging targets of LIBS is the enhancement of the detection limit. In this study, the detection limit of gas-phase LIBS analysis has been improved by controlling the pressure and laser pulse width. In order to verify this method, low-pressure gas plasma was induced using nanosecond and picosecond lasers. The method was applied to the detection of Hg. The emission intensity ratio of the Hg atom to NO (IHg/ INO) was analyzed to evaluate the LIBS detection limit because the NO emission (interference signal) was formed during the plasma generation and cooling process of N2 and O2 in the air. It was demonstrated that the enhancement of IHg/INO arose by decreasing the pressure to a few kilopascals, and the IHg/INO of the picosecond breakdown was always much higher than that of the nanosecond breakdown at low buffer gas pressure. Enhancement of IHg/INO increased more than 10 times at 700 Pa using picosecond laser with 35 ps pulse width. The detection limit was enhanced to 0.03 ppm (parts per million). We also saw that the spectra from the center and edge parts of plasma showed different features. Comparing the central spectra with the edge spectra, IHg/INO of the edge spectra was higher than that of the central spectra using the picosecond laser breakdown process.

Published: 2013.   Source: Applied Spectroscopy 67(11):1242-51

Peculiarity of convergence of shock wave generated by underwater electrical explosion of ring-shaped wire

Related applications:  Plasma Physics

Authors:  D. Shafer, G. R. Toker, V. Tz. Gurovich, S. Gleizer, Ya. E. Krasik

Nanosecond timescale underwater electrical wire explosions of ring-shaped Cu wires were investigated using a pulsed generator with a current amplitude up to 50 kA. It was shown that this type of wire explosion results in the generation of a toroidal shock wave (SW). Time- and space-resolved optical diagnostics were used to determine azimuthal uniformity of the shock wave front and its velocity. It was found that the shock wave preserves its circular front shape in the range of radii 50 μm<r<5 mm. At r≤15μm, azimuthal irregularities of the SW front were obtained indicating the appearance of azimuthal instability. A surprising finding is that the shock wave propagates with a constant velocity of vsw=1.2M, where M is the Mach number. The dynamics of the leading part of the shock wave, based on the oblique shock wave theory, is presented, explaining the constant velocity of the shock wave.

Published: 2013.   Source: Physics of Plasmas 20, 052702 (2013)

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

Related applications:  Laser Spectroscopy LIBS

Authors:  T. N. Owens

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides the opportunity to analyze almost any element, from any material, in any environment. Among the many applications of LIBS is the analysis of thin lms and multilayered structures. An automated system was designed and built to conduct LIBS using Nd:YAG and Ti:Sapphire lasers, broadband and high-resolution spectrometers and detectors. This system incorporates the sample manipulation as well as laser and spectrometer control and timing. A series of experiments were conducted to analyze the ability of nanosecond and femtosecond lasers to detect Mg impurities in thin TiO2 lms using LIBS. It was determined that optimal detection occurs early in the plasma ionic/atomic emission with detection capabilities in the parts-per-million range. Another series of experiments were conducted using LIBS to analyze thin transparent organic lms, with speci c emphasis on the e ect of lm thickness and interplay between lm and substrate. The challenges of ablating and measuring multiple layers have also been explored using various laser wavelengths. The e ectiveness of LIBS has been demonstrated for depth pro ling of CIGS solar cells. Ablation crater and ablation threshold analysis aided in understanding and overcoming some of the obstacles in depth pro ling. One of the challenges with LIBS is the identi cation and mitigation of matrix e ects. This problem was explored using a Mg tracer element and various compositions of the suspected elements Si, Ca, and Sr which can cause errors in LIBS analysis. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the ability of LIBS to conduct detailed thin lm analysis for a variety of materials and potential applications. This includes analyzing trace elements from a traditionally noisy background, measuring dicult to ablate thin lms, and the unique challenges associated with multilayered structures.

Published: 2011.   Source: UC Berkeley Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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