- Flash lamp pumped high pulse energy mode-locked lasers
- Up to 100 mJ
- 20 – 80 ps pulses
- 10 – 20 Hz pulse repetition rate
- Flash lamp pumped high pulse energy mode-locked lasers
- Up to 100 mJ
- 20 – 80 ps pulses
- 10 – 20 Hz pulse repetition rate
Features & Applications
- Hermetically sealed DPSS master oscillator
- Diode pumped regenerative amplifier
- Flashlamp pumped power amplifier producing up to 100 mJ per pulse at 1064 nm
- 30 ps pulse duration (20 ps optional)
- Excellent pulse duration stability
- Up to 20 Hz repetition rate
- Streak camera triggering pulse with <10 ps jitter
- Excellent beam pointing stability
- Thermo-stabilized second, third, fourth and fifth harmonic generator options
- PC control
- Remote control via keypad
- Time resolved fluorescence (including streak camera measurements)
- SFG/SHG spectroscopy
- Nonlinear spectroscopy
- Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
- OPG pumping
- Remote laser sensing
- Satellite ranging
- Other spectroscopic and nonlinear optics experiments
PL2250 series lasers cost-effective design improves laser reliability and reduces running and maintenance costs.
The heart of the system is a diode pumped solid state (DPSS) master oscillator placed in a hermetically sealed monolithic block. The flashlamp pumped regenerative amplifier is replaced by an innovative diode pumped regenerative amplifier. Diode pumping results in negligible thermal lensing, which allows operation of the regenerative amplifier at variable repetition rates, as well as improved long-term stability and maintenance-free operation.
The optimized multiple-pass power amplifier is flashlamp pumped and is optimized for efficient amplification of pulse while maintaining a near Gaussian beam profile and low wavefront distortion. The output pulse energy can be adjusted in approximately 1% steps, at the same time as pulse-to-pulse energy stability remains less than 0.8% rms at 1064 nm.
Angle-tuned KD*P and KDP crystals mounted in thermostabilised ovens are used for second, third and fourth harmonic generation. Harmonic separators ensure the high spectral purity of each harmonic directed to different output ports.
Built-in energy monitors continuously monitor output pulse energy. Data from the energy monitor can be seen on the remote keypad or PC monitor. The laser provides several triggering pulses for synchronization of the customer‘s equipment. The lead or delay of the triggering pulse can be adjusted in 0.25 ns steps from the control pad or PC. Up to 1000 μs lead of triggering pulse is available as a pretrigger feature.
Precise pulse energy control, excellent short-term and long-term stability, and up to 20 Hz repetition rate makes PL2250 series lasers an excellent choice for many demanding scientific applications.
Simple and convenient laser control
For customer convenience the laser can be operated from master device or personal computer through USB (VCP, ASCII commands), RS232 (ASCII commands), LAN (REST API) or RS232 (ASCII commands), LAN (REST API) depending on the system configuration or from remote control pad with backlit display that is easy to read even while wearing laser safety glasses.
|MAIN SPECIFICATIONS 1)|
|at 1064 nm||50 mJ 2)||80 mJ 2)||100 mJ|
|at 532 nm 3)||25 mJ||40 mJ||50 mJ|
|at 355 nm 4)||15 mJ||24 mJ||30 mJ|
|at 266 nm 5)||7 mJ||10 mJ||12 mJ|
|at 213 nm 6)||inquire|
|Pulse energy stability, (StdDev.) 7)|
|at 1064 nm||< 0.8 %|
|at 532 nm||< 1.0 %|
|at 355 nm||< 1.1 %|
|at 266 nm||< 1.2 %|
|Pulse duration (FWHM) 8)||29 ± 4 ps|
|Pulse duration stability 9)||± 1.0 ps|
|Repetition rate||20 or 10 Hz||10 Hz|
|Polarization||linear, vertical, >99 %|
|Pre-pulse contrast||> 200:1 (peak-to-peak with respect to residual pulses)|
|Optical pulse jitter||internal / external|
|Internal triggering regime 10)||< 50 ps (StdDev) with respect to TRIG1 OUT pulse|
|External triggering regime 11)||~3 ns (StdDev) with respect to SYNC IN pulse|
|SYNC OUT pulse jitter 10)||-500 ... 50 ns|
|SYNC OUT pulse delay 12)||-500 ... 50 ns|
|Beam divergence 13)||< 0.5 mrad|
|Beam pointing stability 14)||≤ 20 μrad|
|Beam diameter 15)||~ 8 mm||~10 mm||~12 mm|
|Typical warm-up time||30 min|
|Laser head size (W × L × H)||456×1233×249 mm ±3 mm (for PL2251A, B with harmonic and C models)
456×1031×249 mm ±3 mm (for PL2251A, B models without harmonic)
|Electric cabinet size (W × L × H)||550×600×550 ±3 mm (19″ standard, MR-9)|
|Umbilical length||2.5 m|
|Water consumption (max 20 °C )||water cooled, water consumption (max. 20 °C), <8 l/min, 2 bar|
|Room temperature||22 ± 2 °C|
|Relative humidity||20 – 80 % (non-condensing)|
|Power requirements 16)||single phase, 200 – 240 V AC, 16 A, 50/60 Hz|
|Power 17)||< 1.5 kVA||< 2.5 kVA||< 2.5 kVA|
- Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. Parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise, all specifications are measured at 1064 nm and for basic system without options.
- PL2251B-20 has 70 mJ at 1064 nm output energy. Inquire for these energies at other wavelengths.
- For -SH option. Outputs are not simultaneous. Inquire for these energies at other wavelengths.
- For -TH option. Outputs are not simultaneous. Please inquire for pulse energies at other wavelengths.
- For -FH option. Outputs are not simultaneous. Please inquire for pulse energies at other wavelengths.
- For PL2250 series laser with custom -FiH option.
- Averaged from pulses, emitted during 30 sec time interval.
- FWHM. Inquire for optional pulse durations in 20 – 90 ps range. Pulse energy specifications may differ from indicated here.
- Measured over 1 hour period when ambient temperature variation is less than ±1 °C.
- With respect to TRIG1 OUT pulse. <10 ps jitter is provided with PRETRIG standard feature.
- With respect to SYNC IN pulse.
- TRIG1 OUT lead or delay can be adjusted with 0.25 ns steps in specified range.
- Average of X- and Y-plane full angle divergence values measured at the 1/e² level at 1064 nm.
- Beam pointing stability is evaluated from fluctuations of beam centroid position in the far field.
- Beam diameter is measured at 1064 nm at the 1/e² point.
- Three phase 208 or 380 VAC mains are required for 50 Hz versions.
- For 10 Hz version.
If laser is optimised for pumping parametrical generator, maximum output energy may be different than specified for stand alone application.
Note: Laser must be connected to the mains electricity all the time. If there will be no mains electricity for longer that 1 hour then laser (system) needs warm up for a few hours before switching on.
Provides 20 ps ± 10% output pulse duration. Pulse energies are 30% lower in comparison to the 30 ps pulse duration version. Linewidth <2 cm-1 at 1064 nm. See table below for pulse energy specifications:
|1064 nm||35 mJ||60 mJ||80 mJ|
|532 nm||17 mJ||30 mJ||40 mJ|
|355 nm||12 mJ||18 mJ||24 mJ|
|266 nm||5 mJ||8 mJ||10 mJ|
Provides 80 ps ±10% output pulse duration. Pulse energy specifications as below:
|Pulse energy at 1064 nm||70 mJ||100 mJ||160 mJ|
Performance & Drawings
Soft x-ray emission from laser-produced strontium ions
Related applications: Plasma Physics
Soft x-ray spectra, in the range from 2 nm to 9 nm, were recorded from strontium plasmas formed by pulses from 20 ps, 170 ps and 5.5 ns Nd:YAG lasers operating at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Features due to 3d–4p and 3d–4f transitions were identified by comparison with spectra from adjacent ions and atomic structure calculations with both the Cowan code and the Flexible Atomic Code. As in the spectra of ions of other elements in the fifth row of the periodic table, resonant lines 3dn–3dn−14p1, 3dn–3dn−14f1 and satellite lines 3dn−14s1–3dn−24s14p1, 3dn−14s1–3dn−24s14f1 of Δn = 1 were observed over the 3.0–8.5 nm region, emitted by 10+ to 19+ ions. These Δn = 1 transitions provide a range of narrow band emission features which may match to specific multi layer combinations for reflective optics in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum.
Aggregation States of Poly(4-methylpentene-1) at a Solid Interface
A thin film of poly(4-methylpentene-1) (P4MP1) was prepared on a quartz substrate, which was a model system of an interface in filler-reinforced semicrystalline polymer composites. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that P4MP1 in the thin film after isothermal crystallization formed a Form I crystal polymorph composed of a tetragonal unit cell with a 72 helix, in which the chain axis was oriented along the direction parallel to the quartz interface. Combining sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation enabled us to gain access to the local conformation of P4MP1 chains at the quartz interface and the changes that occurred with isothermal crystallization. Finally, the way in which the initial chain orientation at the substrate interface impacted the crystalline structure in the thin film was discussed.
The response of DNA and RNA bases to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been receiving increasing attention for a number of important reasons: (i) the selection of the building blocks of life on an early earth may have been mediated by UV photochemistry, (ii) radiative damage of DNA depends critically on its photochemical properties, and (iii) the processes involved are quite general and play a role in more biomolecules as well as in other compounds. A growing number of groups worldwide have been studying the photochemistry of nucleobases and their derivatives. Here we focus on gas phase studies, which (i) reveal intrinsic properties distinct from effects from the molecular environment, (ii) allow for the most detailed comparison with the highest levels of computational theory, and (iii) provide isomeric selectivity. From the work so far a picture is emerging of rapid decay pathways following UV excitation. The main understanding, which is now well established, is that canonical nucleobases, when absorbing UV radiation, tend to eliminate the resulting electronic excitation by internal conversion (IC) to the electronic ground state in picoseconds or less. The availability of this rapid “safe” de-excitation pathway turns out to depend exquisitely on molecular structure. The canonical DNA and RNA bases are generally short-lived in the excited state, and thus UV protected. Many closely related compounds are longer lived, and thus more prone to other, potentially harmful, photochemical processes. It is this structure dependence that suggests a mechanism for the chemical selection of the building blocks of life on an early earth. However, the picture is far from complete and many new questions now arise.
Excited State Dynamics of 6‑Thioguanine
Here we present the excited state dynamics of jet-cooled 6-thioguanine (6-TG), using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy, and pump–probe spectroscopy in the nanosecond and picosecond time domains. We report data on two thiol tautomers, which appear to have different excited state dynamics. These decay to a dark state, possibly a triplet state, with rates depending on tautomer form and on excitation wavelength, with the fastest rate on the order of 1010 s–1. We also compare 6-TG with 9-enolguanine, for which we observed decay to a dark state with a 2 orders of magnitude smaller rate. At increased excitation energy (∼+500 cm–1) an additional pathway appears for the predominant thiol tautomer. Moreover, the excited state dynamics for 6-TG thiols is different from that recently predicted for thiones.
Large fluctuations at the lasing threshold of solid- and liquid-state dye lasers
Intensity fluctuations in lasers are commonly studied above threshold in some special configurations (especially when emission is fed back into the cavity or when two lasers are coupled) and related with their chaotic behaviour. Similar fluctuating instabilities are usually observed in random lasers, which are open systems with plenty of quasi-modes whose non orthogonality enables them to exchange energy and provides the sort of loss mechanism whose interplay with pumping leads to replica symmetry breaking. The latter however, had never been observed in plain cavity lasers where disorder is absent or not intentionally added. Here we show a fluctuating lasing behaviour at the lasing threshold both in solid and liquid dye lasers. Above and below a narrow range around the threshold the spectral line-shape is well correlated with the pump energy. At the threshold such correlation disappears, and the system enters a regime where emitted laser fluctuates between narrow, intense and broad, weak peaks. The immense number of modes and the reduced resonator quality favour the coupling of modes and prepares the system so that replica symmetry breaking occurs without added disorder.
Intraoperative diagnostics and elimination of residual microtumours with plasmonic nanobubbles
Failure of cancer surgery to intraoperatively detect and eliminate microscopic residual disease (MRD) causes lethal recurrence and metastases, and the removal of important normal tissues causes excessive morbidity. Here, we show that a plasmonic nanobubble (PNB), a non-stationary laser pulse-activated nanoevent, intraoperatively detects and eliminates MRD in the surgical bed. PNBs were generated in vivo in head and neck cancer cells by systemically targeting tumours with gold colloids and locally applying near-infrared, low-energy short laser pulses, and were simultaneously detected with an acoustic probe. In mouse models, between 3 and 30 residual cancer cells and MRD (undetectable with current methods) were non-invasively detected up to 4 mm deep in the surgical bed within 1 ms. In resectable MRD, PNB-guided surgery prevented local recurrence and delivered 100% tumour-free survival. In unresectable MRD, PNB nanosurgery improved survival twofold compared with standard surgery. Our results show that PNB-guided surgery and nanosurgery can rapidly and precisely detect and remove MRD in simple intraoperative procedures.
On-demand intracellular amplification of chemoradiation with cancer-specific plasmonic nanobubbles
Chemoradiation-resistant cancers limit treatment efficacy and safety. We show here the cancer cell–specific, on-demand intracellular amplification of chemotherapy and chemoradiation therapy via gold nanoparticle– and laser pulse–induced mechanical intracellular impact. Cancer aggressiveness promotes the clustering of drug nanocarriers and gold nanoparticles in cancer cells. This cluster, upon exposure to a laser pulse, generates a plasmonic nanobubble, the mechanical explosion that destroys the host cancer cell or ejects the drug into its cytoplasm by disrupting the liposome and endosome. The same cluster locally amplifies external X-rays. Intracellular synergy of the mechanical impact of plasmonic nanobubble, ejected drug and amplified X-rays improves the efficacy of standard chemoradiation in resistant and aggressive head and neck cancer by 100-fold in vitro and 17-fold in vivo, reduces the effective entry doses of drugs and X-rays to 2–6% of their clinical doses and efficiently spares normal cells. The developed quadrapeutics technology combines four clinically validated components and transforms a standard macrotherapy into an intracellular on-demand theranostic microtreatment with radically amplified therapeutic efficacy and specificity.