PL2230 series

Diode Pumped High Energy Picosecond Nd:YAG Lasers
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  • DPSS high pulse energy mode-locked lasers
  • Up to 140 mJ
  • 20 – 80 ps pulses
  • 50 – 100 Hz pulse repetition rate
  • DPSS high pulse energy mode-locked lasers
  • Up to 140 mJ
  • 20 – 80 ps pulses
  • 50 – 100 Hz pulse repetition rate

Features & Applications

Features

  • Diode pumped power amplifier producing up to 40 mJ per pulse at 1064 nm
  • Beam profile improvement using advanced beam shaping system
  • Hermetically sealed DPSS master oscillator
  • Diode pumped regenerative amplifier
  • Air-cooled
  • <30 ps pulse duration
  • Excellent pulse duration stability
  • Up to 100 Hz repetition rate
  • Streak camera triggering pulse with <10 ps jitter
  • Excellent beam pointing stability
  • Thermo stabilized second, third or fourth harmonic generator options
  • PC control trough USB and with supplied LabView™ drivers
  • Remote control via keypad

Applications

  • Time resolved spectroscopy
  • SFG/SHG spectroscopy
  • Nonlinear spectroscopy
  • OPG pumping
  • Remote laser sensing
  • Satellite ranging
  • Other spectroscopic and nonlinear optics applications

Description

Innovative design

The heart of the system is a diode pumped solid state (DPSS) master oscillator placed in a sealed monolithic block, producing high repetition rate pulse trains (88 MHz) with a low single pulse energy of several nJ. Diode pumped amplifiers are used for amplification of the pulse to 30 mJ or up to 40 mJ output. The high‑gain regenerative amplifier has an amplification factor in the proximity of 10⁶. After the regenerative amplifier, the pulse is directed to a multipass power amplifier that is optimized for efficient stored energy extraction from the Nd:YAG rod, while maintaining a near Gaussian beam profile and low wavefront distortion. The output pulse energy can be adjusted in approximately 1% steps, while pulse‑to-pulse energy stability remains at less than 0.5% rms at 1064 nm.

Angle-tuned KD*P and KDP crystals mounted in thermostabilised ovens are used for second, third, and fourth harmonic generation. Harmonic separators ensure the high spectral purity of each harmonic guided to different output ports.

Built-in energy monitors continuously monitor output pulse energy. Data from the energy monitor can be seen on the remote keypad or on a PC monitor. The laser provides triggering pulses for the synchronisation of your equipment. The lead of the triggering pulse can be up to 500 ns and is user adjustable in ~0.25 ns steps from a personal computer. Up to 1000 μs lead of triggering pulse is available as a pretrigger feature. Precise pulse energy control, excellent short-term and long-term stability, and a 50 Hz repetition rate makes PL2230 series lasers an excellent choice for many demanding scientific applications.

Simple and convenient laser control

For customer convenience the laser can be operated from master device or personal computer through USB (VCP, ASCII commands), RS232 (ASCII commands) or LAN (REST API) interfaces or from remote control pad with backlit display that is easy to read even while wearing laser safety glasses.

Specifications

ModelPL2230-100PL2231-100PL2231-50PL2231A-50
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS 1)
Pulse energy 2)
    at 1064 nm3 mJ12 mJ30 mJ40 mJ
    at 532 nm 3)1.3 mJ5 mJ13 mJ18 mJ
    at 355 nm 4)0.9 mJ3.5 mJ9 mJ13 mJ
    at 266 nm 5)0.3 mJ1.2 mJ3 mJ5 mJ
    at 213 nm 6)inquire
Pulse energy stability (Std. Dev) 7)
    at 1064 nm< 0.2 %< 0.5 %
    at 532 nm< 0.4 %< 0.8 %
    at 355 nm< 0.5 %< 1.1 %
    at 266 nm< 0.5 %< 1.2 %
    at 213 nm< 1.5 %< 1.5 %
Pulse duration (FWHM) 8)28 ps ± 10 %
Pulse duration stability 9)± 1 %
Power drift 10)± 2 %
Pulse repetition rate0 – 100 Hz 100 Hz50 Hz50 Hz
Polarizationvertical, >99 % at 1064 nm
Pre-pulse contrast> 200:1 (peak-to-peak with respect to residual pulses)
Beam profile 11)close to Gaussian in near and far fields
Beam divergence 12) <1.5 mrad <0.7 mrad
Beam propagation ratio M2<1.3<2.5
Beam pointing stability 13) ≤ 10 μrad StdDev≤ 20 μrad StdDev
Typical beam diameter 14) ~2 mm~4 mm~5 mm
Optical pulse jitter
    Internal triggering regime 15)<50 ps (StdDev) with respect to TRIG1 OUT pulse
    External triggering regime 16)~3 ns (StdDev) with respect to SYNC IN pulse
TRIG1 OUT pulse delay 17) -500 … 50 ns
Typical warm-up time5 min15 min
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Laser head size (W × L × H)456×1031×249 ± 3 mm
Electrical cabinet size (W × L × H)12 V DC power adapter,
85×170×41 ± 3 mm
471×391×147 ± 3 mm
Umbilical length2.5 m
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
Cooling 18)built-in chiller
Room temperature22±2 °C
Relative humidity20 – 80 % (non-condensing)
Power requirements110 – 240 V AC, 50/60 HzSingle phase, 110 – 240 V AC, 5 A, 50/60 Hz
Power consumption< 0.15 kVA< 1.0 kVA
  1. Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. Parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise, all specifications are measured at 1064 nm and for basic system without options. Specifications for models PL2231A, B and C are preliminary and should be confirmed against quotation and purchase order.
  2. Outputs are not simultaneous.
  3. For PL2230 series laser with –SH, -SH/TH, -SH/FH or -SH/TH/FH option or –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  4. For PL2230 series laser with –TH, -SH/TH or -SH/TH/FH option or –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  5. For PL2230 series laser with -SH/FH or -SH/TH/FH option or –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  6. For PL2230 series laser with –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  7. Averaged from pulses, emitted during 30 sec time interval.
  8. FWHM. Inquire for optional pulse durations in 20 – 90 ps range. Pulse energy specifications may differ from indicated here.
  9. Measured over 1 hour period when ambient temperature variation is less than ±1 °C.
  10. Measured over 8 hours period after 20 min warm-up when ambient temperature variation is less than ± 2 °C.
  11. Near field Gaussian fit is >80%.
  12. Average of X- and Y-plane full angle divergence values measured at the 1/e² level at 1064 nm.
  13. Beam pointing stability is evaluated from fluctuations of beam centroid position in the far field.
  14. Beam diameter is measured at 1064 nm at the 1/e² level.
  15. With respect to TRIG1 OUT pulse. <10 ps jitter is provided with PRETRIG standard feature.
  16. With respect to SYNC IN pulse.
  17. TRIG1 OUT lead or delay can be adjusted with 0.25 ns steps in specified range.
  18. Air cooled. Adequate room air conditioning should be provided.

Note: If laser is optimised for pumping parametrical generator, maximum output energy may be different than specified for stand alone application.

Note: Laser must be connected to the mains electricity all the time. If there will be no mains electricity for longer that 1 hour then laser (system) needs warm up for a few hours before switching on.

Custom products

Model 1)PL2231B-20 (inquire)PL2231C-20 (inquire)
Pulse energy 2)
    at 1064 nm100 mJ140 mJ
    at 532 nm 3)45 mJ60 mJ
    at 355 nm 4)28 mJ35 mJ
    at 266 nm 5)11 mJ15 mJ
Pulse duration (FWHM) 6)80 ps ± 10 %
Pulse repetition rate20 Hz
  1. Due to continuous improvement, all specifications are subject to change without notice. Parameters marked typical are not specifications. They are indications of typical performance and will vary with each unit we manufacture. Unless stated otherwise, all specifications are measured at 1064 nm and for basic system without options. Specifications for models PL2231B and C are preliminary and should be confirmed against quotation and purchase order.
  2. Outputs are not simultaneous.
  3. For PL2230 series laser with –SH, -SH/TH, -SH/FH or -SH/TH/FH option or –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  4. For PL2230 series laser with –TH, -SH/TH or -SH/TH/FH option or –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  5. For PL2230 series laser with -SH/FH or -SH/TH/FH option or –SH/TH/FH/FiH module.
  6. FWHM. Inquire for optional pulse durations in 20 – 90 ps range. Pulse energy specifications may differ from indicated here.

Options

Option P20

Provides 20 ps ±10 % output pulse duration. Pulse energies are ~ 30 % lower in comparison to the 28 ps pulse duration version. See table below for pulse energy specifications:

ModelPL2231-50PL2231A-50
1064 nm23 mJ28 mJ
532 nm9 mJ13 mJ
355 nm6 mJ9 mJ
266 nm2 mJ4 mJ

Option P80

Provides 80 ps ±10 % output pulse duration. Pulse energy specifications are same as those of 28 ps lasers.

Performance & Drawings

Publications

Found total :
10 articles, 10 selected
Application selected :
All Applications
All Applications
Laser Spectroscopy
SFG – sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy
Luminescence Spectroscopy

Heavy Anionic Complex Creates a Unique Water Structure at a Soft Charged Interface

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  W. Rock, B. Qiao, T. Zhou, A. E. Clark, A. Uysal

Ion hydration and interfacial water play crucial roles in numerous phenomena ranging from biological to industrial systems. Although biologically relevant (and mostly smaller) ions have been studied extensively in this context, very little experimental data exist about molecular-scale behavior of heavy ions and their complexes at interfaces, especially under technologically significant conditions. It has recently been shown that PtCl6 2− complexes adsorb at positively charged interfaces in a two-step process that cannot fit into well-known empirical trends, such as Hofmeister series. Here, a combined vibrational sum frequency generation and molecular dynamics study reveals that a unique interfacial water structure is connected to this peculiar adsorption behavior. A novel subensemble analysis of molecular dynamics simulation results shows that after adsorption PtCl6 2− complexes partially retain their first and second hydration spheres and that it is possible to identify three different types of water molecules around them on the basis of their orientational structures and hydrogen-bonding strengths. These results have important implications for relating interfacial water structure and hydration enthalpy to the general understanding of specific ion effects.

This in turn influences interpretation of heavy metal ion distribution across, and reactivity within, liquid interfaces.

Published: 2018.   Source: J. Phys. Chem. C 2018, 122, 29228−29236

Excited-State Dynamics of Isocytosine: A Hybrid Case of Canonical Nucleobase Photodynamics

Related applications:  Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  J. A. Berenbeim, S. Boldissar, F. M. Siouri, G. Gate, M. R. Haggmark, B. Aboulache, T. Cohen, M. S. de Vries

We present resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectra of isocytosine (isoC) and pump–probe results on two of its tautomers. IsoC is one of a handful of alternative bases that have been proposed in scenarios of prebiotic chemistry. It is structurally similar to both cytosine (C) and guanine (G). We compare the excited-state dynamics with the Watson–Crick (WC) C and G tautomeric forms. These results suggest that the excited-state dynamics of WC form of G may primarily depend on the heterocyclic substructure of the pyrimidine moiety, which is chemically identical to isoC. For WC isoC we find a single excited-state decay with a rate of ∼1010 s–1, while the enol form has multiple decay rates, the fastest of which is 7 times slower than for WC isoC. The excited-state dynamics of isoC exhibits striking similarities with that of G, more so than with the photodynamics of C.

Published: 2017.   Source: J. Phys. Chem. Lett.20178205184-5189

How nature covers its bases

Related applications:  Laser Spectroscopy Luminescence Spectroscopy

Authors:  S. Boldissar, M. S. de Vries

The response of DNA and RNA bases to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been receiving increasing attention for a number of important reasons: (i) the selection of the building blocks of life on an early earth may have been mediated by UV photochemistry, (ii) radiative damage of DNA depends critically on its photochemical properties, and (iii) the processes involved are quite general and play a role in more biomolecules as well as in other compounds. A growing number of groups worldwide have been studying the photochemistry of nucleobases and their derivatives. Here we focus on gas phase studies, which (i) reveal intrinsic properties distinct from effects from the molecular environment, (ii) allow for the most detailed comparison with the highest levels of computational theory, and (iii) provide isomeric selectivity. From the work so far a picture is emerging of rapid decay pathways following UV excitation. The main understanding, which is now well established, is that canonical nucleobases, when absorbing UV radiation, tend to eliminate the resulting electronic excitation by internal conversion (IC) to the electronic ground state in picoseconds or less. The availability of this rapid “safe” de-excitation pathway turns out to depend exquisitely on molecular structure. The canonical DNA and RNA bases are generally short-lived in the excited state, and thus UV protected. Many closely related compounds are longer lived, and thus more prone to other, potentially harmful, photochemical processes. It is this structure dependence that suggests a mechanism for the chemical selection of the building blocks of life on an early earth. However, the picture is far from complete and many new questions now arise.

Published: 2018.   Source: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018,20, 9701-9716

Ultra-sensitive mid-infrared emission spectrometer with sub-ns temporal resolution

Related applications:  Laser Spectroscopy Luminescence Spectroscopy

Authors:  L. Chen, D. Schwarzer, J. A. Lau, V. B. Verma, M. J. Stevens, F. Marsili, R. P. Mirin, S. Woo Nam, A. M. Wodtke

We evaluate the performance of a mid-infrared emission spectrometer operating at wavelengths between 1.5 and 6 μm based on an amorphous tungsten silicide (a-WSi) superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD). We performed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of surface adsorbates with sub-monolayer sensitivity and sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. We discuss possible future improvements of the SNSPD-based infrared emission spectrometer and its potential applications in molecular science.

Published: 2018.   Source: Optics Express Vol. 26, Issue 12, pp. 14859-14868 (2018)

Retrieval of complex χ(2) parts for quantitative analysis of sum-frequency generation intensity spectra

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  M. J. Hofmann, P. Koelsch

Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has become an established technique for in situ surface analysis. While spectral recording procedures and hardware have been optimized, unique data analysis routines have yet to be established. The SFG intensity is related to probing geometries and properties of the system under investigation such as the absolute square of the second-order susceptibility |χ(2)|2 . A conventional SFG intensity measurement does not grant access to the complex parts of χ(2) unless further assumptions have been made. It is therefore difficult, sometimes impossible, to establish a unique fitting solution for SFG intensity spectra. Recently, interferometric phase-sensitive SFG or heterodyne detection methods have been introduced to measure real and imaginary parts of χ(2) experimentally. Here, we demonstrate that iterative phase-matching between complex spectra retrieved from maximum entropy method analysis and fitting of intensity SFG spectra (iMEMfit) leads to a unique solution for the complex parts of χ(2) and enables quantitative analysis of SFG intensity spectra. A comparison between complex parts retrieved by iMEMfit applied to intensity spectra and phase sensitive experimental data shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

Published: 2015.   Source: J Chem Phys. 2015 Oct 7; 143(13): 134112.

Unified treatment and measurement of the spectral resolution and temporal effects in frequency-resolved sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  L. Velarde, H. F. Wang

The lack of understanding of the temporal effects and the restricted ability to control experimental conditions in order to obtain intrinsic spectral lineshapes in surface sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) have limited its applications in surface and interfacial studies. The emergence of high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) with sub-wavenumber resolution [Velarde et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 135, 241102] offers new opportunities for obtaining and understanding the spectral lineshapes and temporal effects in SFG-VS. Particularly, the high accuracy of the HR-BB-SFG-VS experimental lineshape provides detailed information on the complex coherent vibrational dynamics through direct spectral measurements. Here we present a unified formalism for the theoretical and experimental routes for obtaining an accurate lineshape of the SFG response. Then, we present a detailed analysis of a cholesterol monolayer at the air/water interface with higher and lower resolution SFG spectra along with their temporal response. With higher spectral resolution and accurate vibrational spectral lineshapes, it is shown that the parameters of the experimental SFG spectra can be used both to understand and to quantitatively reproduce the temporal effects in lower resolution SFG measurements. This perspective provides not only a unified picture but also a novel experimental approach to measuring and understanding the frequency-domain and time-domain SFG response of a complex molecular interface.

Published: 2013.   Source: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 19970-19984

Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  Z. Chen

This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecularlevel understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecularlevel information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layerbylayer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques.

Published: 2010.   Source: Prog Polym Sci. 2010 Nov 1; 35(11): 1376–1402.

A structural and temporal study of the surfactants behenyltrimethylammonium methosulfate and behenyltrimethylammonium chloride adsorbed at air/water and air/glass interfaces using sum frequency generation spectroscopy

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  S. A. Goussous, M. T.L. Casford, S. A. Johnson, P. B. Davies

Molecular scale information about the structure of surfactants at interfaces underlies their application in consumer products. In this study the non-linear optical technique of Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure and temporal behaviour of two cationic surfactants used frequently in hair conditioners. SFG spectra of films of behenyltrimethylammonium methosulfate (BTMS) and behenyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTAC) were recorded at the air/water interface and on glass slides following Langmuir Blodgett (LB) deposition. The assignment of the BTMS and BTAC spectral features (resonances) to the C--H stretching modes of the surfactants was consolidated by comparison with the SFG spectrum of deuterated cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (d-CTAB) and by recording spectra on D2O as well as on water. The C--H resonances arise from the methylene and methyl groups of the tail and head-groups of the surfactants. A slow collapse mechanism was observed following film compression of both BTAC and BTMS. The change in molecular structure of the films undergoing this slow collapse was followed by recording sequential SFG spectra in the C--H region, and by monitoring the SFG intensity at specific wavenumbers over time. Additionally, LB deposition onto glass was used to capture the state of the film during the slow collapse, and these SFG spectra showed close similarity to the corresponding spectra on water. Complementary Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to elucidate the layering of the compressed and relaxed films deposited onto mica by LB deposition.

Published: 2017.   Source: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 488 (2017) 365–372

Structure of the Fundamental Lipopeptide Surfactin at the Air/Water Interface Investigated by Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  S. A. Goussous, M. T. L. Casford, A. C. Murphy, G. P. C. Salmond, F. J. Leeper and P. B. Davies

The lipopeptide surfactin produced by certain strains of Bacillus subtilis is a powerful bio-surfactant possessing potentially useful antimicrobial properties. In order to better understand its surface behaviour, we have used surface sensitive Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in the C-H and C=O stretching regions to determine its structure at the air/water interface. Using surfactin with the leucine groups of the peptide ring perdeuterated we have shown that the majority of the SFG signals arise from the 4 leucine residues. We find that surfactin forms a robust film, and that its structure is not affected by the number density at the interface or by pH variation of the sub-phase. The spectra show that the ring of the molecule lies in the plane of the surface rather than perpendicular to it, with the tail lying above this, also in the plane of the interface.

Published: 2017.   Source: J. Phys. Chem. B 2017, 121, 19, 5072-5077

Quantitative Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces: Lineshape, Polarization, and Orientation

Related applications:  SFG Laser Spectroscopy

Authors:  H. Wang, L. Velarde, W. Gan, L. Fu

Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) can provide detailed information and understanding of the molecular composition, interactions, and orientational and conformational structure of surfaces and interfaces through quantitative measurement and analysis. In this review, we present the current status of and discuss important recent developments in the measurement of intrinsic SFG spectral lineshapes and formulations for polarization measurements and orientational analysis of SFG-VS spectra. The focus of this review is to present a coherent description of SFG-VS and discuss the main concepts and issues that can help advance this technique as a quantitative analytical research tool for revealing the chemistry and physics of complex molecular surfaces and interfaces.

Published: 2015.   Source: Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2015. 66:189–216

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